Suffering from hernia? And thinking about undergoing surgery for it? Well! A hernia may not be a life-threatening disorder but is surely a problem of concern. One can see different types of hernia pictures while searching for hernia and its treatment. A hernia is a protruding mass of tissue that is often seen bulging out from the abdominal wall and remains in the abdominal cavity causing shooting pain, vomiting, constipation, heartburn, cough, and related symptoms.
Also Read: Facts Everybody Should Know About A Hernia
Why does Hernia occur?
A hernia can occur due to various causes, your body may seem strong and healthy but in some people, certain weak spots arise in the abdominal wall muscles. These weak spots may force the internal contents of the abdominal wall towards the outside to herniate. These contents are basically the fatty tissues present in the abdominal muscles.
You may notice various types of hernia pictures in which you may correlate one with the type you are suffering from. Below mentioned are different types of hernia.
Types of Hernia and Hernia Images
Hernia can be classified into different types based on their location and severity. Different types of hernia and their location are mentioned below.
Inguinal hernia is the protrusions found in the groin area. Mostly it is found to affect men as they have weaker muscles in their groin area. This type of hernia generally evades away while sleeping or by applying a minimum pressure on it. However, a person may experience pain and discomfort in the groin area with just minimal activity.
Inguinal hernia can be classified into direct or indirect type.
Direct inguinal hernia is one that bulges out directly through the posterior wall of the inguinal canal. Whereas, indirect hernia passes through the internal inguinal ring alongside the spermatic cord by making its way through inguinal canal.
This type of hernia is usually found on the abdominal wall and is associated with pain, swelling or fullness where it is present and that can become intense or fade away with the change in position. Ventral hernias that are present in the abdomen are defined as a non-inguinal, no hiatal defect in the muscles of the abdominal wall. Ventral hernias can be acquired or congenital. However, the percentage of people suffering from acquired ventral hernia is greater. Patients who are obese, with co-morbidities are known to experience a complex ventral hernia (CVH) which posturizes large, anterior, ventral hernia and its treatment needs expertise.
This hernia is one of the types of abdominal hernia that occur in the belly button. Umbilical hernia arises when a part of a small bowel pushes the abdominal wall which is very close to the navel or the belly button. Some associated conditions for these types of hernia include increased intra-abdominal pressure due to obesity, pregnancies and abdominal tumors which result in the pull of abdominal tissue due to weakened fascia and deterioration of connective tissue at the level of the umbilicus. It generally affects newborn babies or women as a consequence of giving birth to many children or are obese. Umbilical hernia is generally small which increases the risk of strangulation and incarceration.
This type of hernia arises when diaphragm exerts an extra strain in the epigastric region leading to epigastric hernia formation. A bulging sac is formed in the epigastric region where the organs or fatty tissue extracts of the abdomen accumulates between the belly button and the breastbone. Most commonly found to be affected in infants because they have weak abdominal walls. Initially, they do not show any symptoms but as they grow the bulge becomes more prominent in the upper area of the abdomen.
It is a type of rare abdominal wall defect characterised by a protrusion in the abdominal wall that comprises preperitoneal fat, momentum, or an organ. It is present near the semilunar line of the transversus abdominis muscle. Spigellian hernia can be congenital. These are often rare and complex types of hernia that may be difficult to diagnose due to their location and non-specific symptoms. Spigellian hernias are often overlooked because of their positioning between muscular layers. Localized pain near the area can be usually recognized and aid in diagnosis.
Flank/ Back Hernia
Also known as lumbar hernias that develop due to defects of the postero-lateral abdominal wall associated with the Petit’s triangle or the Grynfeltt-Lesshaft triangle. This defect allows the tissues inside the abdomen to protrude out which may cause pain. Flank/ Back Hernia occurs as a result of surgery in patients with severe kidney diseases, or due to traumatic injury to the back or the side of the abdominal wall.
Incisional hernia is a type of ventral hernia that generally occurs as a protrusion of the abdominal wall occurring along a prior abdominal scar or at the site of the previous surgical incision. It typically occurs at the front of the abdomen and can be seen prominently while a person stands up or during lifting weights. Incisional hernias can be definite where there is a defect in the abdominal wall, a sac filled with tissues and bulge. On the other hand, it can be just seen as a shallow sac with an occasional bulge of content. Incisional hernia may also develop after traumatic abdominal wall injuries or because of failure of the abdominal wall to close properly.
Also Read: Things To Do and Avoid During Hernia
Femoral hernia is a type of hernia when weak tissues in the groin or inner thigh push through a weak spot. It causes severe discomfort in the groin and is not common. To treat femoral hernia, surgery becomes necessary as it may result in complications. Femoral hernia can occur from straining or excess pressure in the groin. It can be while passing urine, lifting heavy weight, chronic cough or due to obesity. Incarceration can also happen if the hernia gets trapped in the femoral canal. This needs immediate medical intervention.
Hiatal hernia occurs in the muscle of the diaphragm that separates the stomach and the chest. It occurs when the stomach pushes its contents towards the chest through an opening in the diaphragm muscle. This is often characterised by symptoms like acid reflux, heartburn and sleepless nights.
All the above-mentioned hernias may take time to show their symptoms. Sometimes, these hernias do not show any symptoms and remain at the site for prolonged periods. Once the symptoms show up it may impact your quality of life to a greater extent. Therefore, it’s essential to diagnose such problems at an early stage in order to avoid complications during surgery.
Q. What type of hernia is most common in females?
A. A research paper with the title, “Hernias as a Cause of Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women” published in the Journal of the Society of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgeons, explained that the indirect inguinal hernia is the most common type of hernia that develops in women. These tend to be present since birth. Another most common hernia in women is the femoral hernia.
Q. Which is the most common type of hernia in males?
A. The anatomy of the men makes them susceptible to developing a hernia. There is a small hole around the groins through which blood vessels pass and connect with the testicles. With age, the muscles around this area weaken and the gaps widen. Hence, muscles or organs can push through this opening and result in inguinal hernia.
Q. What are the different types of hernia surgery?
A. Primarily, all the various types of hernia surgery can be categorised into the following three –
- Tension repair- In this procedure, after making the incisions, the surgeons put back the protruded organ into its place and stitches to put tension on both sides of the weakened area.
- Open tension-free repair- In this procedure, the doctor uses a mesh to hold the protruded organ in its original position and strengthen the area.
- Laparoscopic tension-free repair- The same procedure is performed with the help of a mesh and a specialised instrument, laparoscopy.