Written by:

Atul Sharan


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Urinary incontinence is a state that refers to the involuntary leakage of urine. The process of urination involves a set of activities in which the bladder muscles tighten, pushes urine out of the bladder and into the urethra, a tube transports it out of the body. When the bladder muscles contract, the smooth muscle tissue in the region of the urethra relaxes and help the urine pass. All these muscles are controlled by spinal nerves. If any of these actions take place involuntarily, incontinence occurs.

The causes and the types of incontinence

Stress Incontinence

Stress incontinence occurs when a physical activity or movement puts pressure or stress on your bladder.


  • Stretch of the pelvic floor muscles such as pregnancy, childbirth, and weight gain.
  • Menopause, as a reduced level of estrogen, can make the muscles weaker
  • Some surgical procedures like hysterectomy
  • Old age

Urge incontinence

Urge incontinence occurs when the bladder muscle involuntarily contracts and pushes urine out of the bladder.


  • An inflammation of the lining of the bladder
  • Some neurological conditions, like, stroke, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Enlarged prostate, which can cause the bladder to drop, and the urethra to become irritated.

Overflow Incontinence

Overflow incontinence is the involuntary release of urine due to a weak bladder muscle or due to blockage. Even when the bladder is overly full, the person doesn’t feel any urge to urinate.

  • An enlarged prostate gland
  • A tumor pressing against the bladder
  • Constipation
  • Urinary stones

Total incontinence

Total incontinence is the continuous and total loss of urinary control.


  • An anatomical defect since birth
  • Any spinal cord injury which impairs the nerve signals between the brain and the bladder
  • A fistula, if a tract or channel occurs between the bladder and a close by area, typically the vagina

Other causes:

  • Due to some medications, like diuretics, antihypertensive drugs, sedatives, and muscle relaxants.
  • Alcohol
  • UTIs (urinary tract infections)

Also Read: Natural Ways to Prevent Incontinence

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