Menstrual Disorders refers to the set of problems associated with the menstruation that affects the women live to the great extent.
Ignoring the issues will lead to severe health problems. Menstrual Disorder or irregularities refer to the stage when female face irregular bleeding due to physical, psychological or other factors.
Some may face the problem of heavy bleeding or light bleeding or some may have the periods for more than 7 days. Some may feel the severe pain.
The menstruation will be associated with other signs such as mood swings, swelling, pain, tenderness, tiredness at the time of periods causing hampering the routine work. (Also Read: 9 Effective Tips to Overcome Premenstrual Syndrome )
So if your health issues are not supporting your menstrual cycle you are likely to have a problem, so it is the time to consult with the gynecologist.
Types of Menstrual Disorders
While looking at the severity of the problems the menstrual disorders have been divided into many parts as mentioned below:-
- Abnormal uterine bleeding or Menorrhagia: This is the stage of heavy bleeding disorder that is related to women’s hormonal imbalance issues. Other causes thereof can be fibroids, cervical or endometrial polyps, the autoimmune disease lupus, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), blood platelet disorder, a hereditary blood factor deficiency, or, possibly some reproductive cancers. Women may feel abnormal pain and tiredness due to high blood loss. The stage is referred to when women have to change the pads and tampons many times a day.
- Dysmenorrhea: This is not related to bleeding amount, it is related to pain thereof. Women usually feel cramps and mild pain during menstruation, after or before the menstruation. If the pain persists for long and is severe, the situation is called Severe Dysmenorrhea. The pain is caused by uterine contractions, triggered by prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that are produced by the uterine lining cells and circulate in your bloodstream.
- Amenorrhea: This is the stage when women have not experienced bleeding . The absence of periods is normal before puberty, after menopause, and during pregnancy,but if you are not having normal bleeding, so you are in the stage of Amenorrhea. There are two types of Amenorrhea present. Primary Amenorrhea in which women have never experienced the bleeding. The issues are diagnosed at the age of 16 if the bleeding has not occurred. This problem can be raised due to issues in the endocrine system, low body weight associated with eating disorders, excessive exercise or medications, hypothalamus or genetic abnormalities, Delayed maturing of your pituitary gland are the common causes for primary Amenorrhea. Secondary Amenorrhea is the stage when the regular periods are stopped after some period of 3 months or longer. It may cause due to estrogen levels, including stress, weight loss, exercise, or illness.
- Oligomenorrhea: the stage is called when women face infrequent bleeding or have to wait for 35 days or more for the next menstruation cycle. The number of menstruation maybe 4-9 in a year.
Symptoms of Menstrual Disorders
We have discussed the various types of Menstrual disorders above and here we will highlight the common causes which are:-
- Heavy periods, light periods, absent periods or irregular periods
- The very short or long interval between menstrual cycle
- Pain, cramps, Spotting
- Fainting or dizziness
- Iron deficiency (anemia)
Causes of Menstrual Disorders
The variety of menstrual disorders are found in women the causes will also vary accordingly. Here, one may find the numerous causes or reasons leading to Menstrual Disorders which are:
- PCOS/PCOD or Polycystic ovaries Syndrome
- Uncontrolled diabetes
- Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism
- Unhealthy eating and drinking habits and Smoking
- Pregnancy Complications
- Endometriosis or Endometrial Polyps, or Endometrial hyperplasia
- Ovarian tumor or uterine cancer
- Hormone Imbalance
- Ovary dysfunction
- Uterine Fibroids or benign tumors
- Intrauterine device (IUD, a contraceptive non-hormonal intrauterine device that is used for birth control)
- Inherited bleeding disorders
- Anti-inflammatory medications, hormonal medications
- Psychological factors
- Some diseases such as liver & kidney problems, thyroid, and blood clotting disorders.
Diagnosis and Tests for Heavy Uterine Bleeding or Menstrual Disorders
Before undergoing any therapy or treatment, one should go through the actual diagnostic methods so as to measure the right cause and symptoms thereof. Before undergoing any tests or checkups, a doctor will write the medical history and the symptoms you are facing.
A detailed physical examination will ensure which test one should have to go through. The diagnostics tests are prescribed below:-
- Blood Tests to check for the anemia level, thyroid, hemoglobin levels, or blood clotting abnormalities.
- Pap Test:-It is done to check for cervical cancer or infection or inflammation
- A vaginal examination is done to feel the tightness of the uterus.
- Endometrial Biopsy
- Ultrasound to check for the abdominal and pelvic conditions. It will help to measure the cyst, fibroids and pelvic abnormalities if present
Diagnostics methods are helpful to identify the real cause and treatment thereof.
Treatment for Heavy Uterine Bleeding or Menstrual Disorders
Non-surgical and surgical treatments for heavy uterine bleeding or menstrual disorders are mentioned below:-
- Endometrial ablation:- It is a daycare surgery which is performed using local anesthesia. women may go home after having this surgery. In this process, the lining of the uterus is distracted or removed with the help of hysteroscope which is inserted into the cavity of the uterus through the vagina or cervix.
- Myomectomy:- it is done to remove fibroids without harming the uterus.
- Hysterectomy:- The process can be performed in 4 different ways.
1. Abdominal Hysterectomy involves removing uterus with the opening of the abdomen.
2. Vaginal Hysterectomy involves removing the uterus through the vagina.
3. Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal hysterectomy includes removal of the uterus through the vagina with small cuts in the abdomen to assist the surgeon.
4. Laparoscopic hysterectomy includes removal of the uterus through small cuts in the abdomen.
The surgical methods will depend on the severity and the cause. The surgical treatment will be informed after the due consent of the patient only.
Also Read- Overview of Laparoscopic Gynae Surgeries
Before going through the surgery, everyone wants to get the treatment through medications only.
The medications include Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), Oral Contraceptive pill, Oral Progesterone (progestogen), Tranexamic acid, Danazol, Progestogen intrauterine device, Iron supplements for anemia.
The medicine will be given by the gynecologist after evaluating the disease and the symptoms. Having a consultation with the female specialist gynecologist will help you better understand the problem and to cure the same in an effective way.
Surgical Treatments for Bleeding or menstrual Disorders are provided through advanced laser techniques at Prsityn Care. Call or write to us to book an appointment!! You can also consult a gynecologist online. Click here to speak to a gynecologist now