Being overweight increases the risk of a number of serious diseases and health conditions. Below is a list of said risks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):
High blood pressure
Higher levels of LDL cholesterol, which is widely considered “bad cholesterol,” lower levels of HDL cholesterol, considered to be good cholesterol in moderation, and high levels of triglycerides
Type II diabetes
Coronary heart disease
Osteoarthritis, a type of joint disease caused by breakdown of joint cartilage
Sleep apnea and breathing problems
Certain cancers (endometrial, breast, colon, kidney, gallbladder, liver)
Low quality of life
Mental illnesses such as clinical depression, anxiety, and others
Body pains and difficulty with certain physical functions
Generally, an increased risk of mortality compared to those with a healthy BMI
As can be seen from the list above, there are numerous negative, in some cases fatal, outcomes that may result from being overweight.Generally, a person should try to maintain a BMI below 25 kg/m2, but ideally should consult their doctor to determine whether or not they need to make any changes to their lifestyle in order to be healthier.
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Being underweight has its own associated risks, listed below:
Malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, anemia (lowered ability to carry blood vessels)
Osteoporosis, a disease that causes bone weakness, increasing the risk of breaking a bone
A decrease in immune function
Growth and development issues, particularly in children and teenagers
Possible reproductive issues for women due to hormonal imbalances that can disrupt the menstrual cycle.
Underweight women also have a higher chance of miscarriage in the first trimester
Potential complications as a result of surgery