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Vasectomy Surgery (Male Sterilization) - Benefits, Types & Risks

A vasectomy or male sterilization is a safe and effective form of permanent birth control. Consult with an experienced urologist at Pristyn Care to undergo male vasectomy surgery.

A vasectomy or male sterilization is a safe and effective form of permanent ... Read More

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  • What is Vasectomy for Men?

    Vasectomy or male sterilization is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or blocking the vas deferens – the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. Vasectomy in men prevents the sperm from reaching the semen that is ejaculated during sexual intercourse. This makes a man sterile and unable to impregnate a woman.

    The success rate of vasectomy is over 99%, and it is considered a highly effective and permanent form of birth control. It is a safe and relatively simple surgical procedure with minimal risks or complications. A man should consider vasectomy surgery only as a permanent decision as the procedure works as a permanent contraception and is irreversible.

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    How is Male Vasectomy Surgery Done?

    Male vasectomy Surgery is a daycare procedure that does not take more than 20-30 minutes and is typically performed in a urologist’s office or clinic. The steps of vasectomy surgery for men include:

    • The urologist numbs the area near the scrotum with anesthetic and then cleans and sterilizes the area.
    • The doctor will then make one or two small incisions in the scrotum to access the vas deferens, the tube that carries sperm from the testicles to the urethra.
    • Once the vas deferens is accessed, the doctor will cut it and remove a small section. The doctor will then tie, seal or cauterize the ends of the tube to prevent sperm from passing through.
    • The surgeon will close the incisions with stitches, skin glue, or surgical tape.
    • After the procedure, the doctor and the medical staff will examine the patient for 2-3 hours. 
    • Once the doctor deems fit, the patient can head back home.

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    Types of Vasectomy

    There are two types of vasectomy procedures for males:

    1. Traditional Vasectomy is the most commonly performed male vasectomy procedure. In this procedure, the doctor makes one or two small incisions in the scrotum to access the vas deferens. The vas deferens are then cut, and a small section is removed. The ends of the tube are tied, clipped, or cauterized to prevent sperm from passing through. The incisions are then closed with stitches or surgical glue.
    2. No-Scalpel Vasectomy operation is less invasive than the traditional one. In this technique, the surgeon uses a special instrument to make a small puncture in the skin of the scrotum instead of making an incision. This puncture is large enough for the doctor to access the vas deferens. The vas deferens is then cut and sealed in the same way as in the traditional procedure. Since the no-scalpel method is less invasive, it results in less pain, bleeding, and scarring than the traditional method.

    What To Expect After a Vasectomy Surgery?

    After a vasectomy surgery, the patient may experience some discomfort and swelling in the scrotum area. Here are the other things you can expect after a vasectomy:

    • Pain and discomfort – There may be some pain and discomfort for the first few days after the procedure. This can be managed with over-the-counter pain medication and by applying ice packs to the scrotum.
    • Swelling and bruising – It’s common to have some swelling and bruising in the scrotum area after the sterilization procedure. With proper care and medications in the next few days.
    • Restricted activities – You may need to avoid strenuous physical activity and heavy lifting for a few days after the vasectomy operation to allow the incision site to heal.
    • Sexual activity – You shall be asked to avoid sexual activity for at least a week after the procedure to allow the incision site to heal. Once the surgical site heals and you feel comfortable, you can resume sexual intercourse without hassle.

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    What are the Benefits of Vasectomy?

    Male vasectomy or male sterilization is a form of permanent contraception and is considered to be the most effective method to prevent pregnancy. Here are some benefits of male sterilization :

    • Highly effective – Male sterilization is a highly effective form of birth control, with a success rate of over 99 percent. After vasectomy, couples can have unprotected sex without worrying about unplanned pregnancies.
    • Low risk – Vasectomy involves no to very low risks and complications. Most men can return to normal activities from the third day of vasectomy.
    • Permanent – Vasectomy is a one-time procedure and a permanent form of contraception. Unlike other birth control methods, such as condoms or birth control pills, vasectomy does not involve ongoing maintenance and expenses.
    • Cost-effective – Vasectomy is a cost-effective form of contraception. While the procedure cost might seem higher than other forms of contraception, the long-term cost is lower because there would no longer be any expenses for condoms, birth control pills, or other methods.
    • No impact on sexual function – Vasectomy does not affect a man’s sexual function or ability to enjoy sex. After a vasectomy operation, a man can still have erections, ejaculate, and experience orgasms as before.
    • Reduces risk of certain cancers – Medical researches state that vasectomy has been linked to a reduced risk of prostate cancer and may also reduce the risk of testicular cancer.
    • Effective for family planning – Vasectomy is an effective way for men to take control of their family planning.

    Risks and Complications of Male Vasectomy Surgery

    Male vasectomy is typically considered safe and effective, with a low risk of complications. However, as with any surgery, there are some risks and potential complications that should be considered.

    Some of the risks and complications associated with male sterilization include:

    • Infection – There is a small risk of infection after vasectomy, along with pain, swelling, redness, and fever.
    • Bleeding – In rare cases, vasectomy can cause bleeding in the scrotum, leading to pain and swelling.
    • Sperm granuloma – Sometimes, a small lump of tissue called a sperm granuloma may be formed at the site where the vas deferens were cut. This can cause pain and discomfort but usually resolves on its own.
    • Failure – Although vasectomy is a highly effective form of contraception, there is still a small risk of failure. It is imperative to get a vasectomy done by an experienced urologist to avoid such complications.
    • Post-vasectomy pain syndrome – It is a rare but serious complication that can cause chronic pain in the scrotum and groin area after vasectomy.

    About Vasectomy Reversal?

    While vasectomy is considered a permanent method of contraception, it is sometimes possible to reverse the procedure through a surgery called a vasectomy reversal. During a vasectomy reversal, the cut ends of the vas deferens are reconnected, allowing sperm to once again mix with semen and leave the body during ejaculation. 

    However, it is essential to note that vasectomy reversal is not always successful. The success rates vary depending on several factors, such as the length of time since the vasectomy, the technique used for the original procedure, and the age and overall health of the individual.

    Additionally, the cost of a vasectomy reversal procedure can be high and may not be covered by insurance.

    Common FAQs Around Men Vasectomy

    Is vasectomy a painful surgery?

    Before the vasectomy operation, the area around the scrotum will be numbed with a local anesthetic, which is likely to prevent any pain or discomfort during the surgery. Some men may feel a slight tugging or pulling sensation after the procedure, but this is usually not painful.

    After the anesthesia fades away, the patient may experience some mild discomfort, swelling, and bruising in the scrotum. This discomfort can usually be managed with over-the-counter pain medication and the use of ice packs. Most men are able to resume normal activities within a few days after the procedure.

    Is vasectomy 100% effective?

    Vasectomies have a success rate of 99 percent. According to the American Urological Association, the failure rate of vasectomy is less than 1%. This means that out of every 1000 couples who have unprotected sex for one year after the man has had a vasectomy, less than 1 of the partners will become pregnant.

    Does vasectomy affect sex drive or the ability to have sex?

    Vasectomy does not affect sex drive or a man’s ability to have sex, as it does not affect the production of sex hormones or the ability to maintain an erection. The only change that may occur after male sterilization is the absence of sperm in the semen, which does not affect sexual function or pleasure.

    On the contrary, many men report increased sexual satisfaction after vasectomy, as they no longer have to worry about the risk of unintended pregnancy.

    Are vasectomies immediately effective?

    No, vasectomies are not immediately effective. At the time of your vasectomy, there are millions of sperm in your system, which need to be flushed out. Typically, it takes about three months or 20-25 ejaculations for all remaining sperm to be cleared from the vas deferens. It is important to use an alternate form of contraception, such as condoms or another form of birth control, to prevent unintended pregnancy.

    After the three-month waiting period, a semen analysis will be done to confirm that there are no more sperm present in the semen. Only after the semen analysis confirms the absence of sperm is it safe to assume that the vasectomy has been successful.

    Where does sperm go after vasectomy?

    After a vasectomy, the testicles still produce sperm, but the sperm can no longer mix with semen and leave the body during ejaculation. Instead, the sperm are reabsorbed by the body.

    During a vasectomy, the vas deferens, which are the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra, are cut and sealed off. This prevents sperm from leaving the body during ejaculation. However, the testicles continue to produce sperm, which are eventually reabsorbed by the body.

     

    How long does recovery take after male sterilization?

    Recovery time after male sterilization varies from person to person and depends on several factors, such as the individual’s overall health, the surgical technique used, and how well the patient follows post-operative instructions. In general, most men can resume normal activities within a few days to a week after the procedure.

    Which doctor to consult for a vasectomy surgery?

    You can consult a urologist, a general surgeon, or a family medicine physician to discuss vasectomy surgery. These healthcare providers are trained and qualified to perform vasectomy procedures.

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    Content Reviewed By
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    Dr. Ramnik Grover
    29 Years Experience Overall
    Last Updated : May 14, 2024