Dysuria in simple words means pain while urinating. It’s often described as a burning sensation, is caused by the bacterial infection of the urinary tract. Dysuria is a common symptom of bladder infection which is known as cystitis. Cystitis is common in women aged 18-50. The infection often begins when the bacteria enter the opening where urine comes out during the intercourse. The bacteria can enter the urethra in women and girls who wipe with the toilet tissue from back to front. Once the bacteria enters the woman’s urethra, it has to travel a short distance to the bladder. In men over the age of 50, the bladder infection is associated with an enlarged prostate. In upper urinary tract infection, the kidney becomes infected when the bacteria travels to the kidney from an infection in the bladder. Kidney infections occur commonly:
- People with persistent kidney stones
- People suffering from diabetes
- During the pregnancy
- Men with an enlarged prostate
- Abnormal back-flow of urine from the bladder to kidneys in children
Urethritis happens because of the inflammation of the urethra. This is caused by sexually transmitted diseases. Urethritis can also be caused by contact with an irritating chemical or by irritation from an object like a tube which is inserted to drain out urine.
Vaginitis means inflammation of the vagina. This is caused by an allergic reaction to an irritating chemical, because of a low of estrogen after the menopause or by an object like a tampon which was not removed. This can also be caused by an infection.
Signs and Symptoms indicating Dysuria
The symptoms of dysuria will depend on the cause of dysuria. The symptoms can include:
- Cystitis: Intense urge to urinate or frequent urge to urinate, pain in the lower front portion of the abdomen, cloudy urine which can have a strong odor.
- Upper urinary tract infection
How is it diagnosed ?
There are many people who have some episodes of discomfort when they begin urinating. This is caused by the irritation and doesn’t need to be treated. You should consult your doctor if the pain while urination lasts longer. The doctor will ask about your symptoms and your sexual habits. He will do a physical examination, where he will check for tenderness over kidneys and will examine your genitals. In women, this may include a pelvic exam. Men having prostate problems can have a rectal exam. For the diagnosis of urethritis and vaginitis, a swab of the infected area can be taken for testing. If you are suffering from dysuria and had unprotected sex with different partners, the doctor might order tests to look for various types of sexually transmitted diseases which include chlamydia, gonorrhea, HIV. The duration of dysuria can depend on its cause. Most people having an infection of the urinary tract respond well to the treatment within a few days. If the cause is difficult to determine, symptoms can last longer.
The treatment of dysuria will depend on the cause:
- Urethritis: This problem can be treated with the help of antibiotics. The antibiotic used will depend on the infection which causes the urethritis.
- Vaginitis: Bacterial vaginosis is treated with the help of antibiotics. The yeast infections are treated with the help of antifungal drugs, either via a pill or a cream is inserted into the vagina.
- Cystitis: These infections are caused by the bacteria which can be cured with antibiotics which are taken orally. Antibiotics are given into a vein for extreme pyelonephritis with a high fever.
Prevention of the Disease
To prevent dysuria which is caused by cystitis, you can have plenty of glasses of water daily to flush out your urinary tract. Women should wipe from front to back after a bowel movement. You should also urinate after the intercourse to flush any bacteria out from the urethra. This will helps to prevent the bacteria from moving to the bladder. To overcome dysuria which is caused by irritation, women should keep their genital area clean and dry, change tampons and sanitary napkins regularly. They should avoid using soaps which cause irritation. To avoid any irritation in female children, you should limit bubble baths, wash girls thoroughly. To prevent dysuria which is caused by sexually transmitted diseases, you should opt for safe sex which includes wearing a condom unless you have only one sexual partner.