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About Male Infertility

Male infertility is any health condition that lowers a man's chances of getting his female partner pregnant. When a couple is diagnosed with infertility, most of the time, the thoughts run to the woman that she is barren. But, in reality, infertility problems are equally due to male and female conditions.

Statistics suggest that 35 to 40 percent of cases of infertility are caused by male conditions, another 35 to 40 percent by female conditions, and 20 to 30 percent of infertility cases are a combination of the two. The rest of the small number of cases are due to unknown infertility reasons. Men diagnosed with male infertility often have to fight emotional complexes such as anger, guilt, and low self-esteem. A couple facing infertility issues, be it due to male factor or female, need to communicate with a doctor and get timely treatment.



Causes of male infertility:

Sperm Disorders (not fully grown/ oddly shaped/ low in numbers/ do not move the right way)



Retrograde Ejaculation

Immunologic Infertility



Undescended testicles

Symptoms of male infertility:

Problems with sexual functioning

Inability to smell

Pain and swelling in the testicle area

Gynecomastia (abnormal growth in the breast tissues)

Sperm count lower than normal

Decreased facial hair due to hormonal abnormality


  • Abnormal sperm production or disorders
  • Retrograde ejaculation
  • Certain Medications
  • Varicocele
  • Lifestyle habits such as smoking, drinking alcohol, taking drugs or certain anabolic steroids


  • Changes in sexual desire
  • Changes in hair growth
  • Problem in maintaing erection
  • Small & firm testicles
  • Pain or swelling in testicles


Treatment of male infertility:

The treatment of male infertility depends on the cause of the problem. Treatment of male infertility can broadly be classified into 3 types:

  • Non-surgical therapy for male infertility
  • Surgical therapy for male infertility
  • Treatment for unknown causes of male infertility

Non-surgical therapy for male infertility is suggested if the man suffers from any of the following condition.


Anejaculation is when there’s no semen. It’s not common, but can be caused by:

  • spinal cord injury
  • prior surgery
  • diabetes
  • multiple sclerosis
  • abnormalities present at birth
  • other mental, emotional or unknown problems

Drugs are often tried first to treat this condition.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)

CAH is a rare cause of male infertility. It involves congenital problems in certain enzymes. CAH causes abnormal hormone production. CAH is most often diagnosed by evaluating the steroid level in the blood and urine. CAH can be treated with hormone replacement.

Retrograde Ejaculation

Retrograde ejaculation is a condition in which the semen flows back instead of going out of the penis. It can be caused by:

  • prostate or bladder surgeries
  • diabetes
  • spinal cord injury
  • antidepressants
  • certain anti-hypertensives
  • medications used to treat prostate enlargement (BPH)

Retrograde ejaculation can be treated with drugs.


Surgical treatment for male infertility is recommended in case of infertility caused due to the following conditions:

  • Varicocele Treatments: Varicocele is a condition in which the veins in the scrotum become enlarged. The condition can be fixed with minor outpatient surgery called varicocelectomy. Fixing these swollen veins helps sperm movement, numbers, and structure. If you are suffering infertility issues due to varicocele, you can get in touch with our vascular experts.
  • Azoospermia Treatments: If your semen lacks sperm (azoospermia) because of a blockage, there are many surgical choices. TESA, PESA, MESA can be used to retrieve sperm.
  • Microsurgical Vasovasostomy: Vasovasostomy is used to undo a vasectomy. It uses microsurgery to join the 2 cut parts of the vas deferens in each testicle.
  • Transurethral Resection of the Ejaculatory Duct (TURED): Ejaculatory duct blockage can be treated surgically. During the surgery, a cystoscope is entered into the urethra and a small incision is made in the ejaculatory duct. Thereafter, the doctor successfully unblocks the ejaculatory duct obstruction.

Treatment for unknown causes of male infertility

While most cases of male infertility can be diagnosed and treated, there are also conditions, where it becomes difficult to tell what is the exact cause of infertility in a man. Such conditions are known as ‘idiopathic’ or ‘non-specific’ male infertility. In cases where the cause is not clearly determined, or where no other forms of treatment work, infertility specialists suggest the patient undergoes the following infertility treatment techniques.

Assisted Reproductive Techniques

If all other infertility treatment fails to provide desired results, there are ways by which a couple can get pregnant without having sex. These methods are called assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). Based on the specific type of infertility and the cause, the infertility specialist may suggest any of the following ARTs.

  • In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): IVF is the most common and trusted ART in which the egg of a female partner or donor is fertilized with sperm of the male partner or sperm donor in a lab petri dish. For IVF, the ovaries must be efficiently stimulated. This is often done with drugs as the first step of the whole procedure. It allows multiple mature eggs to be retrieved. After 3 to 5 days of growth, the fertilized egg (embryo) is implanted into the uterus. IVF is used mostly for women with blocked fallopian tubes. But the procedure is also relied upon in cases where the man has very severe and untreatable oligospermia (low sperm count).
  • Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): IUI or intrauterine insemination is a fertility treatment where the sperm is directly placed in the uterus. The chances of conception in IUI fertility treatment are more since the process allows a higher concentration of healthy sperm to come closer to the egg. IUI is often suggested for couples where the male suffers low sperm count and movement problems, retrograde ejaculation, and other causes of infertility.
  • Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): ICSI is a variation of IVF. It has revolutionized the treatment of severe male infertility. A single sperm is injected into the egg with a tiny needle. Once the egg is fertilized, it’s implanted in the female partner’s uterus. Your infertility specialist may recommend ICSI if the male partner has very poor semen quality. It is also used if you have no sperm in the semen, a block or testicular failure that can’t be fixed. Sperm may also be taken from the testicles or epididymis by surgery for this method.
  • Sperm Retrieval for ART: Many microsurgical methods can remove sperm blocked by obstructive azoospermia (no sperm). The goal is to get the best quality and number of cells. This is done while trying not to harm the reproductive tract. These methods include:
  • Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA): PESA is a low-cost treatment done by most experienced urologists under local or general anesthesia. The urologist sticks a needle attached to a syringe into the epididymis. Then he or she gently withdraws fluid from the testicle ducts. PESA is often a successful treatment but in case sperm is not retrieved through this technique, the doctor may recommend open surgery.
  • Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA): MESA helps in retrieving sperm from the epididymal tubes. This method uses a surgical microscope. MESA yields high amounts of motile sperm. They can be frozen and thawed later for IVF treatments. This method limits harm to the epididymis. It keeps blood out of the fluid. Even though MESA calls for general anesthesia and microsurgical skill, it has a lower problem rate. It’s also able to collect larger numbers of sperm with better motility for banking.
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Frequently Asked Questions

Which doctor to consult for male infertility?

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Can genetic disorders cause male infertility?

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Can diabetes cause infertility in males?

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Does masturbation cause infertility in males?

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Can an infertile man become fertile with treatment?

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How to know if a man is infertile?

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What is fertility preservation?

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What is the cost of sperm retrieval and storage in Kochi?

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What is a normal sperm count?

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Can smoking affect the quality or quantity of sperm?

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Can varicocele cause male infertility?

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Can male infertility be prevented?

There is no way you can prevent infertility caused due to physical deformities in cases where the vas deferens are missing. If the infertility is a result of addictions, infections, or other reversible conditions, timely treatment can help a male treat his infertility issues. Infertility issues that are caused due to lifestyle related problems can be prevented or managed with proper physical care. Below mentioned are some of the lifestyle issues which can be helpful in preventing male infertility.

  • Maintain a healthy body weight – Obesity and overweight have been directly associated with infertility problems. To prevent obesity from contributing to infertility issues, it is important for a man to maintain a healthy body weight.
  • Maintain an optimum testicular temperature – Wearing tight-fit clothes for a long time can affect blood flow to the genitals and can also alter the testicular temperature. A higher testicular temperature has been medically associated with altered sperm production.
  • Quit alcohol, smoke, and drugs – Substance abuse of any sort can significantly disturb the functioning of the biological process of the body. Excess consumption of drugs, tobacco, nicotine or alcohol can ruin your reproductive health.
  • Keep a check on your diet – You are what you eat. Most people are not aware of this, but one cannot deny the fact that a person’s reproductive health is very closely associated with what the person eats in a day. If you want to enhance your sperm production, add a lot of vitamin C, zinc, and healthy nutrients to your system.
  • Keep gadgets away from your genitals – Electronic gadgets like laptops and mobile phones emit low-level radiation which can affect sperm production. To prevent infertility problems, you need to make sure that you do not keep mobile gadgets and laptops in your pocket for a long time.
  • Make exercise a part of your life – Exercise is the best way to ensure a healthy immune system. If you are not physically active, your body is likely to become more susceptible to inflammations and infections which might contribute to infertility down the line

Consult with the best doctors in Kochi for male infertility treatment

Pristyn Care is a trusted and reliable healthcare provider for male infertility treatments. Pristyn Care is associated with some of the top hospitals and labs in Kochi that are equipped with state-of-the-art facilities required to perform all tests and treatments for male infertility.

Urologists and fertility specialists at Pristyn Care do a thorough consultation in the case of every patient to understand the health complication and then determine the best line of treatment method for every patient.

Infertility is more than just a physical health complication. It can bring along emotional, financial, and psychological struggles. Our doctors are empathetic towards the condition of every patient. They go beyond providing just the medical treatment. They make sure to be there for the patient throughout and after the treatment.

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