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What is Enlarged Prostate?

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or BPH, is a condition associated with the enlargement of the prostate gland. People with an enlarged prostate find it difficult to empty their bladder properly due to the narrowing of the urethra. This results in the frequent urge to urinate, especially at night. It is estimated that more than 70% of men are likely to have enlarged prostate over the age of 50 years, out of which 25% require surgical procedures.

The condition is referred to as benign suggesting it may not be cancerous. The term ‘prostatic’ is associated with the prostate gland and ‘Hyperplasia’ refers to the enlargement of the gland.The condition is referred to as benign suggesting it may not be cancerous. The term ‘prostatic’ is associated with the prostate gland and ‘Hyperplasia’ refers to the enlargement of the gland.



ICD-10 code for BPH:

Diseases of the genitourinary system - N00-N99

Benign prostatic hyperplasia - N40

Acupuncture points for BPH:

BL23 (ShenShu)

BL28 (Pang Guang Shu)

BL32 (Ciliao)

BL33 (Zhang Liao)


Bladder stones

Kidney damage

Bladder damage

Urinary tract Infection

Sudden inability to urinate

Risk factors:




Age factor

Erectile dysfunction

Foods to avoid in BPH:




Saturated fats

Caffeinated beverages

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  • Changes in hormone levels
  • Prostate cancer
  • Aging


  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Inability to empty the bladder
  • Recurrent respiratory infections
  • Need to put strain to urinate
  • A urine stream that starts and stops


Male patient consulting doctor for prostate enlargement


The diagnosis for an enlarged prostate involves a combination of physical examination and diagnostic tests. Since heredity is a risk factor for BPH, the doctor will analyze your family history report as well. The doctor recommends the following tests to rule out the possibility of enlarged prostate due to other conditions. Some of the diagnostic tests include –

  • Ultrasound – Doctors generally recommend an ultrasound of the prostate gland to detect any abnormal growth within the prostate using 3D imaging. This test is helpful in determining the amount of enlargement around the prostate.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test – Doctors usually recommend a PSA blood test to check for any increased PSA levels in case of enlarged prostate. This helps the urologists to detect the early signs of prostate cancer.
  • Urinary flow test – This test is done to measure the strength and amount of your urine flow and to determine if the condition is stable or getting worse with time.
  • Postvoid residual volume test – Sometimes, when the patient is unable to empty the bladder completely, this test is recommended to measure the amount of urine left in your bladder after the urination. This is done via ultrasound or inserting a catheter into the bladder.
  • 24-hour voiding diary – The doctor will recommend this test to record the frequency and amount of urine expelled, especially if more than one-third of your daily urinary output occurs at night.
  • Urine test – The doctor analyzes a sample of your urine to rule out any signs of infection or other conditions that can lead to similar symptoms.
  • Blood tests – Blood tests help the doctors to find the abnormality with the kidneys or not. Also, blood tests are very useful to rule out the abnormal functioning of kidneys.

In case of moderate or complex cases, the doctor may recommend the following diagnostic tests-

  • Digital rectal exam – The doctor inserts a finger into your rectum to check for any signs of prostate enlargement.
  • Cystoscopy – A light, flexible scope called a cystoscope is inserted into your urethra to allow the doctor to see inside your bladder.
  • Prostate biopsy – The doctor uses needles guided by a transrectal ultrasound to take a tissue sample of the prostate and analyze the tissue to rule out the chances of prostate cancer.
  • Urodynamic and pressure-flow studies – This test measures the bladder pressure and determines how well your bladder muscles work using a catheter that is inserted through your urethra.


There are several surgical as well as non-surgical methods for BPH treatment which include various medications, dietary changes, and lifestyle modifications. However, non-surgical methods such as medications, home remedies, etc are effective to manage the symptoms of BPH and surgical treatment is the only way to treat and cure enlarged prostate.

Minimally invasive surgeries – These surgical techniques are minimally invasive and can be performed as outpatient surgeries, meaning the patient may not require a hospital stay and can be discharged on the same day of the surgery. Recovery is generally quicker, but it depends on the severity of the medical condition of the patient and the surgical expertise of the surgeon.

Minimally invasive procedures are recommended in case of the following situations-

  • Your symptoms are moderate to severe
  • Medications are ineffective or not effective in treating BPH
  • Chronic urinary tract obstruction, bladder stones, or blood in your urine
  • Preference of the patient

Minimally invasive surgical procedures that are described below can help the patients relieve symptoms quickly and may nullify the need for medications.

  • Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)- This technique uses a light scope called a resectoscope. It is inserted into the urethra through the penis. TURP uses electric current or laser light to remove the outer tissue of the prostate. The patient is generally under the influence of anesthesia to ensure a painless procedure. The resectoscope provides light, irrigating fluid, and an electrical loop that cuts the tissues and seals the blood vessels. Finally, the removed tissue is expelled out of the body through a catheter. The cost of TURP procedures is somewhere between Rs. 60, 000 – Rs. 1 lakh. However, the actual cost can depend on several factors such as the severity of the condition, medical health of the patient, surgical experience of the surgeon, etc.
  • Transurethral Incision of the Prostate (TUIP)- TUIP is used to widen the urethra in case the size of the prostate is not significant but causes blockage. After the patient is administered with general anesthesia, the surgeon will cut the tissues around the prostate gland to release the pressure of the prostate on the urethra. The patient generally finds it easier to urinate after the procedure. The surgeon may choose to leave the catheter in the bladder for a day or two after the surgery to drain the bladder.
  • Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT)- In this procedure, the urologist inserts a catheter through the urethra to reach the prostate. An ‘antenna’ then sends microwaves through the catheter to heat the parts of the prostate that destroys the enlarged tissues to ease the flow of the urine. The surgeon uses a cooling system around the urinary tract that protects it from heat damage. TUMT is a low-risk procedure that may take time before the patient notices any results.
  • Prostatectomy- This surgery aims to remove the entire prostate gland with either laparoscopic or robot-assisted technique. The surgeon makes an incision in your lower abdomen to reach the prostate and remove the surrounding tissues. It is generally done for very large prostate. However, it has long-term benefits that may require a few days hospital stay after the surgery depending on the medical condition of the patient.
  • Laser surgeries – These are advanced surgeries that use high-energy lasers to destroy or remove the tissues around the enlarged prostate. Patients who undergo laser therapy procedures often feel instant relief. Moreover, laser surgeries have a lower risk of side effects than minimally invasive surgeries. Some of the advanced laser techniques for laser BPH procedures are-
  • Photoselective Vaporization (PVP) – PVP is an advanced method to vapourize prostate tissues using a high-powered laser. It is an outpatient procedure which means the patient can go home on the same day of surgery after consulting with the doctor. This method causes minimal blood loss and the patient can recover quickly to resume his daily routine
  • Holmium Laser Enucleation of Prostate (HOLEP) – In this procedure, the urologist inserts a thin, tube-like instrument called a resectoscope through the penis and into the urethra. A laser is used to destroy the excess prostate tissue without the need for any incision or cuts. The patient is administered with general anesthesia for a painless procedure. The surgeon may choose to use a catheter which is usually removed the next day of the surgery. The cost of HOLEP can range anywhere between Rs. 1 lakh – Rs. 1.5 lakhs. However, the actual cost can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the expertise of the surgeon.
  • Thulium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate (ThuLEP) – This is a similar procedure to HOLEP, except for the difference in the type of laser used. The surgeon inserts a resectoscope through the penis and into the urethra. A laser is inserted into the resectoscope that destroys the enlarged prostate to reduce the pressure on the urethra. There are no incisions and the patient is administered with general anesthesia before the surgery for a painless procedure.

Non-surgical methods:

Medications – Doctors generally prescribe medications to treat men with mild to moderate symptoms of BPH. These medicines ease the symptoms by calming the muscles in the prostate and bladder. However, there may be some side effects related to corresponding medications depending on the condition and severity of the disease. Some categories of medications prescribed by the doctor for BPH include-

  • Alpha-Blockers
  • 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors [5-ARIs]
  • Tadalafil (Cialis)
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Frequently Asked Questions

Can prostate enlargement cause infertility?

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Can benign prostatomegaly lead to prostate cancer?

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Can BPH cause back pain?

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What is a PSA test?

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Can BPH cause constipation?

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What will happen if I do not get treatment for BPH?

Untreated BPH can lead to urinary retention. Urinary retention is a condition in which a person is unable to empty their bladder completely, no matter how hard they try. This is very harmful for the urinary system and leads to a variety of urinary problems such as urinary tract infections, dysuria (painful urination), urinary incontinence, bladder/kidney stones, etc. In addition to this, BPH also makes ejaculation painful and difficult leading to erectile dysfunction. All of these symptoms combined have deep psychological impact and can lead to depression in older men.  

If you are exhibiting symptoms of BPH, book a free consultation with the best urologists in Mumbai to seek the best prostate enlargement treatment near you.

How is HoLEP different from TURP? 

Both HoLEP and TURP are fundamentally similar and work by reducing the prostate size to relieve the urinary symptoms. However, there are a few basic differences between TURP and HoLEP procedures as explained below:

  • During the TURP procedure, the surgeon uses a resectoscope with an attached electric loop to incise the extra prostate tissue and cauterize the wound simultaneously. While in the HoLEP procedure, the surgeon uses a modified resectoscope with an attached laser to vaporise the extra prostate tissue using a high-powered laser beam.
  • There is minimal bleeding in the TURP procedure, while the HoLEP procedure is entirely bloodless.
  • Since HoLEP procedure is performed through a laser, it is more expensive than TURP surgery.
  • A TURP surgery takes about 1 to 1 and a half hours, while HoLEP surgery takes about 45 minutes to two hours, depending on the size of the prostate gland.
  • It may take about 3-4 weeks for the patient to recover fully after TURP procedure while the recovery time is only 1-2 weeks for HoLEP surgery.
  • There is no difference between the long-term efficacy of either of these procedures.

What are the complications associated with BPH surgeries?

Although minimally invasive surgeries such as TURP and HoLEP for BPH treatment are extremely safe and complication-free, in rare cases, you might experience minor complications like:

  • Infection
  • Painful or burning urination
  • The appearance of blood/blood clots in urine
  • Weak urine stream
  • Difficulty in urinating
  • Inflammation or discharge in the surgical site
  • Nausea and vomiting along with low appetite

All these side effects are mostly temporary and can be easily managed by expert urologists in Mumbai at Pristyn Care.

Why should I visit Pristyn Care for prostate surgery in Mumbai?

Pristyn Care is associated with the best urology hospitals in Mumbai, where you can avail the best treatment for prostate enlargement. Some other facilities provided by Pristyn Care are:

  • Prostate treatment from the best urologists and urosurgeons near you
  • Free consultations with BPH specialists near you
  • Cab and meal service on the day of the surgery
  • Dedicated medical coordinator for help with documentation and hospital admission
  • Complete insurance support
  • Financial assistance through No-cost EMI, cashless payments, etc.
  • Free follow-up consultation within one week after the surgery

How to book an appointment for prostate treatment in Mumbai?

You can book an appointment at Pristyn Care by:

  • Fill in the ‘Book an Appointment’ form with your details. Our medical coordinators will reach out to you and book an appointment with the best urologist near you based on your convenience.
  • Call the number on this page and directly connect with our medical coordinators. Relay your symptoms and location to them so they will book an appointment for you.
  • Download our patient care app. Look through our database for prostate specialists near you. Book an appointment yourself directly through the app.
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