Laparoscopy gallstone removal surgery is a minimally invasive procedure during which the gallstone (gallbladder) is removed by making a few incisions in the abdomen. Gallstones form when excess cholesterol in the bile crystallizes, causing the gallbladder not to empty properly. The gallbladder can then become inflamed and/or infected; this is known as cholecystitis. The repeated formation of gallstones often requires gallstone surgery. There are two surgical ways to remove the gallbladder or gallstones that are known as open surgery (conventional surgery) and laparoscopic surgery.