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What is a Varicocele?

Varicocele is a very common condition in adult males, affecting nearly 15 percent of them. In the condition of varicoceles, the veins in the scrotum become visibly enlarged or twisted. This happens due to damaged vein valves. The damaged valves do not function properly, resulting in a reflux of blood. The blood then starts to pool in the veins, thereby making them swollen and enlarged. Varicoceles quite often lead to infertility issues and thus require to be treated in time.



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Infection like epididymitis

Drinking water while standing


Exercising without any protective gear

Blockage in the spermatic cord


Presence of a lump in the scrotum

Dull and mild pain in the scrotum

Swelling in the scrotal region

Visibly twisted or enlarged veins in the scrotum



The doctor may ask you about your medical history and then conduct some physical exams, blood tests, and imaging tests to assess the severity of the condition.

The doctor conducts the physical exam to look for tenderness and to examine the testicles. After the physical exam, the doctor may also conduct a scrotal ultrasound to get a detailed and accurate picture of the scrotal veins.

In addition to these, some blood tests and semen analysis tests may also be performed to check if varicoceles have impacted the fertility or the hormone levels.


Percutaneous embolization- In this procedure, the doctor inserts a catheter into the body through the groin. The doctor then injects a solution through this catheter into the affected scrotal veins. The solution blocks the vein by scarring it and the damaged vein then collapses. The blood then flows through other healthy veins and the varicocele is treated.

Surgery- The most-effective treatment for curing a varicocele is surgery. The surgical treatment of varicoceles is known as varicocelectomy. This is done when the varicocele causes discomfort or the doctor feels there is a risk of infertility. The whole procedure is performed under the influence of anesthesia.

In this procedure, the surgeon makes a small incision in the abdomen or upper thigh region. A laparoscope and other small equipment are then used to close off the damaged veins and reroute the blood through healthier veins.

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Our surgeons spend a lot of time with you to diagnose your condition. You are assisted in all pre-surgery medical diagnostics. We offer advanced laser and laparoscopic surgical treatment. Our procedures are USFDA approved.

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Post Surgery Care

We offer free follow-up consultations and instructions including dietary tips as well as exercises to every patient to ensure they have a smooth recovery to their daily routines.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Can varicocele affect fertility?

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What is the best treatment for varicocele?

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Can varicoceles be left untreated?

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Are varicoceles the same as hydrocele?

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What precautions should I follow after varicocele surgery?

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What does a Varicocele look like?

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Is laparoscopic varicocelectomy safe?

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Can medicines completely cure varicocele ?

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In simple terms, the swelling of veins in the scrotum is known as varicocele. But then, what is a scrotum? Scrotum is the pouch that holds the testicles (testes). The scrotum also contains various blood vessels that supply blood to the reproductive organs. 

Both sides of the scrotum are anatomically different. Although it’s extremely rare, varicoceles can develop on bot...

h sides. 

In a varicocele, the veins inside the scrotum become enlarged. The enlarged veins are known as pampiniform plexus. The condition is similar to varicose veins that develop in the legs. This is one of the most common reasons behind male infertility. 

Facts on Varicocele

  • Varicocele is the most common problem males belonging to the age of 15-25 develop.

  • Not in all cases, but a varicocele is more likely to develop on the left side of the scrotum than the right side.

  • Varicocele is similar to varicose veins. Varicose veins tend to occur in the legs while varicocele occurs in the scrotum. 

Types of Varicocele

There are two types of varicocele which can be further categorized into 3 types.

  • Primary Varicocele develops when the left internal spermatic veins and the renal vein creates pressure inside the scrotum. In addition to this, there can be malfunctioning of the valves in the veins.

  • Secondary Varicocele develops when an unwanted growth of skin in the scrotum restricts flow to the internal spermatic vein. 

Whether someone is suffering from primary or secondary varicocele, the doctor diagnoses the grade of the varicocele the patient is suffering from.

  • Grade 1 varicocele- In this classification of varicocele, the affected veins are not visible to the naked eyes. It gets detected only during a physical examination. 

  • Grade 2 varicocele- In this category, the veins are larger than grade 1 but these are still invisible to the eye.

  • Grade 3 varicocele- These are enlarged veins that are easily visible to the naked eye. 

Treatment of Varicocele

Surgery of Varicocele

  • Varicocelectomy-   This is a daycare procedure that can be performed at the doctor’s clinic. Performed under the influence of anesthesia, the urologist redirects the blood flow to other unaffected veins by closing the affected one.  An obstructed vas deferens is repaired surgically in a varicocele surgery.

This can be performed into two eyes-

  1. Microscopic varicocelectomy- In this type of varicocelectomy, the surgeon makes an incision of 1cm. Through this incision, the veins are ligated using a microscope. The whole procedure is completed within 2 to 3 hours. 

  2. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy- In this type, the surgeon makes several small incisions through which a long, slender tube known as a laparoscope is inserted. The doctors ligate the veins through these incisions.  The whole procedure is completed within 30 minutes. 

  3. Percutaneous embolization-  With the help of X-ray guidance, a contrast dye is injected through a tube to check where the problem originates. This is done by tracking all the veins that leads to the varicocele. The flow of blood is diverted by blocking the blood flow in the affected vein with the help of coils, plugs with or without sclerosant. The whole procedure is performed by making a small hole in the groin or neck. 

Complications of Varicocele

Leaving a varicocele untreated for long can lead to severe complications. Some of them are discussed below-


Varicocele is one of the prime contributors to increasing infertility and lower sperm count in males in India. The main reason being that an increased blood flow raises the temperature of the testicles thereby, lowering sperm production. 

Shrinking of Testicles

As the veins of the scrotum get enlarged, the testes tend to become smaller and softer. This is also known as testicular atrophy or shrinkage. 

Imbalance of Hormones 

When diagnosed with varicocele, there are higher levels of luteinizing hormone secretion. This is an abnormality as this hormone is found in higher levels in women.  

Prevention of Varicocele

There are no preventive measures that can stop varicocele from occurring. But fortunately, there are some tips that improve circulation, strengthen vein structure and boost collagen production. These factors prevent new veins from swelling.

  • Avoid a sedentary lifestyle. It is important that you don’t sit or stand for long periods without any break. 

  • Drink lots of water. Keep yourself hydrated to prevent sperm damage and maintain proper pH balance.

  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle. To live a healthy life, stop consuming excessive alcohol or caffeine, stimulant drugs, smoking or consuming a low fiber, processed food diet. 

  • Consume Vitamin C-rich food. Vitamin C-rich food encourage collagen production and recovery. Some food that are rich in Vitamin C are broccoli, strawberries, mango, tomato, papaya, kale, and bell peppers. 

  • Ensure a healthy heart. People suffering from untreated diabetes or any cardiovascular diseases are more likely to suffer from arterial obstruction, poor circulation of blood as well as varicoceles. 

  • Eat food high in antioxidants to prevent damage to sperm. 

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