Kidney stones are the solid masses that are made up of crystals. Kidney stones are basically formed in your kidneys. They can move anywhere along the urinary tract and get stuck. The urinary tract consists of these parts:
In this blog, you will get to know about the types of kidney stones one by one.
Calcium Oxalate Stones
Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of kidney stones. Oxalate is a natural substance that is present in many foods. The body uses food for energy. After your body uses what it requires, the waste products travel via the bloodstream to kidneys and flush out through urine. If there is plenty of waste in too little liquid, there are chances that kidney stones will form. The crystals can stick together and can form a solid mass. Oxalate is a type of substance that can form crystals in the urine. This happens if there is too much of the oxalate in the body. There are certain risk factors that can cause your body to develop calcium oxalate stones. The risk factors include:
- Dehydration, not drinking enough liquid
- If your diet is too high in protein
- Some medical conditions such as dent disease
Kidney stones are common if you are having inflammatory bowel disease. This condition will affect your body’s ability to absorb fat. If the fat is not absorbed in a nice way, then the fat will bind to calcium and it will leave oxalate behind.
By these methods, you can lower the chances of calcium oxalate stones:
Drinking enough liquids
The one thing you can do is to drink plenty of liquids, like water. Drinking plenty of water will make your urine thin and it will make harder for chemicals to build up. The doctor will suggest the right amount of fluid for you.
Eat less sodium
A diet that is high in sodium can cause calcium to build up in your urine. Too much of calcium present in the urine can lead to the formation of the new stones. It can cause the bones to weaken.
Avoid taking vitamin C supplements
Consult your doctor before taking any vitamin C supplements. Too much of vitamin C can cause high amounts of oxalate in urine.
Struvite stones are a hard mineral deposit that can form in your kidneys. These stones form when minerals like phosphate and calcium crystallize inside kidneys and stick together. Bacteria in the urinary tract are responsible for the formation of struvite. Struvite stones can grow quickly. They will eventually block your bladder, ureter, kidney. Bacteria present in your urinary tract produce struvite when they break down the waste product into ammonia. Struvite stones form when your urine is alkaline. If you are having a urinary tract infection which will make your urine alkaline.
Treatment of Struvite Stones
It’s better to treat struvite stones in time as they have a tendency to grow in size. They can possibly damage your kidney and can lead to infections. People who are more prone to contracting UTI’s have higher chances of forming struvite kidney stones.
Doctors are able to treat these infections with the help of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). PNL is a suitable treatment for people having trouble with the stones and if they are too large to break down by SWL. The doctor will make a small incision in your back and will insert a scope. The stone will be removed via an incision.
SWL uses shock waves that are directed from the machine outside your body which will break up the stones into tiny pieces. After the treatment is done, the pieces of stone will pass via your urinary tract, you might have to go through this procedure more than once.
Cystine stones tend to reoccur and are usually larger than other kidney stones. You should talk to your doctor if you are suffering from kidney stones. There are things that you can follow (lifestyle and dietary changes) to reduce the risk of developing more kidney stones. Cystinuria which is a rare disorder is the major cause of cystine stones. This disorder causes a natural substance which is cystine to leak into the urine. These stones can get stuck in the bladder, kidneys or anywhere in the urinary tract.
Treatment of Cystine Stones
The goal of the treatment is to reduce the formation of stones by reducing the amount of cystine in your urine. With less cystine present in urine, there are lesser chances of forming cystine kidney stones. You can take pain relievers while waiting for the stone to pass out of your body. If the stone is big and painful, you may require surgery to remove it. There are various types of surgeries to help reduce the formation of cystine kidney stones:
So, these were the main types of kidney stones that can harm your body. You should consult as your doctor as soon as possible.
Also Read: How to Treat Kidney Stones in a Day?