Kidney stones are the solid masses which are made up of crystals. Kidney stones are basically formed in your kidneys. They can develop anywhere along the urinary tract, which does consist of these parts:
In this article, we will see the types of kidney stones one by one.
Calcium Oxalate Stones
Calcium oxalate stones are a common type of kidney stones. Oxalate is a natural substance which is present in many foods. The body uses food for energy. After your body uses what it requires, the waste products travel via the bloodstream to kidneys and get removed via urine. If there is plenty of waste in too little liquid, there are chances that crystals will form. The crystals can stick together and can form a solid mass. Oxalate is a type of substance which can form crystals in the urine. This happens if there is too much of the oxalate in the body. There are certain risk factors which can cause your body to develop calcium oxalate stones. The risk factors include:
- Dehydration, not drinking enough liquid
- If your diet is too high in protein
- Some medical conditions such as dent disease
Kidney stones are common if you are having inflammatory bowel disease. This condition will affect your body’s ability to absorb fat. If the fat is not absorbed in a nice way, then the fat will bind to calcium and it will leave oxalate behind.
By these methods, you can lower the chances of calcium oxalate stones:
- Drinking enough liquids
The one thing you can do is to drink plenty of liquids, like water. Drinking plenty of water will make your urine thin and it will make harder for chemicals to build up. The doctor will suggest the right amount of fluid for you.
- Eat less sodium
A diet which is high in sodium can cause calcium to build up in your urine. Too much of calcium present in the urine can lead to the formation of the new stones. It can cause the bones to weaken.
- Avoid taking vitamin C supplements
Consult your doctor before taking any vitamin C supplements. Too much of vitamin C can cause high amounts of oxalate in urine.
Struvite stones are a hard mineral deposit which can form in your kidneys. Stones are formed when minerals like phosphate and calcium crystallize inside kidneys and they stick together. Struvite is a mineral which is produced by the bacteria in the urinary tract. Struvite stones can grow quickly. They will eventually block your bladder, ureter, kidney. Bacteria present in your urinary tract produce struvite when they break down the waste product into ammonia. For struvite to be formed, your urine has to be alkaline. If you are having a urinary tract infection which will make your urine alkaline.
Treatment of Struvite Stones
It’s better to treat struvite stones because if they grow big, they can possibly damage your kidney and can lead to infections. Doctors are able to treat these infections with the help of shock wave lithotripsy or with percutaneous nephrolithotomy. PNL is a suitable treatment for people having trouble with the stones and if they are too large to get broken by SWL. The doctor will make a small incision in your back and will insert a scope. The stone will be removed via an incision. SWL uses shock waves which are directed from the machine outside your body which will break up the stones into tiny pieces. After the treatment is done, the pieces of stone will pass via your urinary tract, you might have to go through this procedure more than once. If both SWL and PNL don’t work, the doctor can recommend open surgery to remove the stones. The doctor will make a larger incision in the abdomen and will remove the stones from the kidney.
Cystine stones tend to reoccur and are larger than other kidney stones. You should talk to your doctor if you are suffering from kidney stones. There are things which you can follow to reduce the risk of developing new stones. Cystine stones are caused because of the rare disorder which is known as cystinuria. This disorder causes a natural substance which is cystine to leak into the urine. These stones can get stuck in the bladder, kidneys or anywhere in the urinary tract.
Treatment of Cystine Stones
The goal of the treatment is to reduce the formation of stones by reducing the amount of cystine in your urine. With less cystine present in urine, then stones are less likely to produce. You can take pain relievers while waiting for the stone to pass out of your body. If the stone is big and painful, you may require surgery to remove it. There are various types of surgeries to help reduce the formation of stones:
So, these were the main types of kidney stones which can harm your body. You should consult as your doctor as soon as possible.
Also Read: How to Treat Kidney Stones in a Day?