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What are Kidney Stones?

Kidney stones are hard deposits of salt and minerals in the kidneys. These stones usually cause immense pain whenever they move or obstruct the urinary tract. Kidney stones differ in size. While some stones can be a few millimetres in size, others can grow to inches. Kidney stones are quite prevalent equally and affect both men and women. Kidney stones can be divided into four major types- Calcium stones, Uric Acid stones, Struvite stones and Cystine stones.



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Recurrent Urinary tract infections


Infections in the kidney


Loss of kidney function


Renal failure




Lack of water

Being overweight

Chronic diarrhea

High blood sugar

High animal protein diet

Family history


Severe pain below the ribs, in the side and back

Pain while urinating

Pink, red or brown colored urine

Foul smelling urine

Urinating more than often

Fever and chills



You should reach out to a specialist doctor as soon as you notice the symptoms of kidney stones.

The specialist doctor will discuss your medical history to get a better understanding of your condition. They may perform a physical examination and ask you to undergo some imaging tests for the proper diagnosis of the size and the location of the kidney stones.

In addition to imaging tests, your doctor may also conduct some blood and urine tests to get a detailed insight into the condition of your kidney stones.

And, before providing the treatment, your doctor will ask you a few questions about your diet and check for where you feel the bouts of pain the most.


There are a number of techniques available for the treatment of kidney stones. The most modern and effective surgical treatments for kidney stones include laparoscopic treatment, laser treatment and shock wave lithotripsy.

In laparoscopic treatment for kidney stones, the surgeon makes a small incision in the renal pelvis or the ureter, depending upon the location of the kidney stone. A small laparoscopic device is inserted to get a clearer view of the inside of the urinary tract. The kidney stones are then removed through the incision and the incision is closed with minor stitches. It is a minimally invasive procedure and is performed under the administration of anesthesia, which means it is absolutely painless as well.

Laser treatment for kidney stones involves the use of laser energy for breaking the stones into small fragments. The surgeon inserts a device called an ureteroscope into the ureter through the urethra. Then the surgeon looks for the kidney stone and once it is found, high-intensity laser energy is aimed at the stone. The laser energy breaks the stones into small pieces, some of which are removed through a small bucket and the rest are flushed out through the urine.

In shock wave lithotripsy, the doctor uses thousands of shock wave pulses to break the larger stone into smaller pieces. After that, you will be asked to drink a lot of fluids so that the small stone pieces can travel easily through the urinary tract and then eventually get flushed out through the urine.

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Pristyn Care is COVID-19 safe

Your safety is taken care of by thermal screening, social distancing, sanitized clinics and hospital rooms, sterilized surgical equipment and mandatory PPE kits during surgery.

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Assisted Surgery Experience

A dedicated Medical Coordinator assists you throughout the surgery journey from insurance paperwork, to free commute from home to hospital & back and admission-discharge process at the hospital.

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Medical Expertise With Technology

Our surgeons spend a lot of time with you to diagnose your condition. You are assisted in all pre-surgery medical diagnostics. We offer advanced laser and laparoscopic surgical treatment. Our procedures are USFDA approved.

Post Surgery Care

Post Surgery Care

We offer free follow-up consultations and instructions including dietary tips as well as exercises to every patient to ensure they have a smooth recovery to their daily routines.

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Frequently Asked Questions

How to get rid of multiple stones in the kidneys?

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How much water should I drink with kidney stones?

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Which is the best treatment for kidney stones?

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Is it possible to get rid of kidney stones without surgery?

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Is it safe to undergo laser treatment for kidney stones?

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I am currently suffering from kidney stones. What foods should I eat and avoid?

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Can kidney stones cause infection in the urinary tract?

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Can kidney stones cause damage to the kidneys?

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What happens if kidney stones are left untreated?

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Overview of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are stones that form in any part of the urinary tract. These are hard deposits of salt and minerals such as calcium or uric acid that cannot be dissolved by the body. When higher levels of these minerals get accumulated, kidney stones develop.

Our urinary system works round-the-clock to excrete waste matter from the body. The kidneys, whi...

ch are bean-shaped organs, purifies the blood and removes toxicants through the urine. When these toxicants don’t dissolve properly, stones develop.

Kidney stones can be very painful as their size increases or the stones move towards the bladder. When these stones get stuck in the ureter, urine flow can be blocked which can cause immense pain.

Facts about Kidney Stones

  • Kidney stones can be as small as a grain of sand or as big as a golf ball. Some stones can be smooth while others can be snaggy. Some kidney stones can be yellow while some stones can be brown.

  • Kidney stones are medically known as renal calculi.

  • It is not necessary that these stones occur only in the kidneys. The stones can develop anywhere in the urinary tract- kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra.

Types of Kidney Stones

The following are the types of kidney stones-

Calcium Stones

80 percent of people are diagnosed with calcium kidney stones, making it one of the most common types of kidney stones. These kidney stones can be further categorized into two types-

  • Calcium oxalate- These stones develop when you eat a lot of high-oxalate food such as potato chips, peanuts, chocolate, beets, spinach.

  • Calcium phosphate- These stones develop due to conditions such as hyperparathyroidism or urinary tract infections.

Uric Acid Stones

Uric acid stones develop in 5-10 percent of people. The risk of developing this type of kidney stones increases due to the following factors-

  • Overweight or obesity

  • Chronic diarrhea

  • Diabetes, especially Type 2

  • Gout

  • A high animal protein diet

  • Eating fewer fruits and vegetables

When uric acid (waste matter) does not dissolve in acidic urine, it crystallizes into these stones.

Cystine Stones

These stones develop due to a rare, inherited disorder known as Cystinuria. People suffering from this metabolic disorder have high amounts of cysteine (amino acids) in the urine. These types of stones are more likely to develop in children.

Infection Stones

Around 10 percent of people suffer from this type of kidney stones. These stones are also known as struvite. As the name suggests, these stones develop due to urinary tract infections (UTIs). By the time these stones are diagnosed, they are already large enough as they grow very fast.

People who suffer from recurring UTIs or face difficulty while emptying their bladder due to neurologic issues are more prone to developing struvites/infection stones.

Treatment of Kidney Stones

Surgery for Kidney Stones

  • Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL)- In this procedure, the doctor uses sound (sound or shock?) waves to break the large stones so that they can pass through the ureters more easily. To track the exact location of stones, X-rays or ultrasound is used. The whole procedure is performed under the influence of light anesthesia. But the problem with this treatment is that it is not very effective for very hard or large stones.

  • Ureteroscopy- In this procedure, the urologist passes a device known as ureteroscope that helps them to see the stone without making any incision. The whole procedure is performed under the influence of anesthesia so there is no discomfort nor any pain. Once the location of stones is known, these are removed with a basket-like device or further broken into smaller pieces with a laser or other stone-breaking tools.

  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)- In PCNL, an instrument known as nephroscope is inserted through a half-incision in the back/side. This instrument breaks the stones and suctions out the pieces. This is considered as the most effective treatment option for curing large stones in the kidney.

Complications of Kidney Stones

The complications of kidney stones can be any of the these-

  • Formation of abscess

  • Infections that lowers the functioning of kidneys

  • Formation of urinary fistula

  • Perforation of the ureters

  • Sepsis formation in the urinary system

  • Due to long-standing obstruction, there can be a renal loss

Infected hydronephrosis is the most severe complication that can arise from kidney stones. In severe cases, people can die too.

Prevention of Kidney Stones

A healthy diet and lifestyle are important to prevent the occurrence of kidney stones. Some of the healthy tips you can follow are mentioned below-

  • Keep yourself hydrated to prevent kidney stones to keep the urine output normal. Drink at least eight glasses of fluids on a daily basis.

  • A low-calcium diet can increase the risk of gallstones. Hence, eat a calcium-rich diet.

  • Avoid a sodium-rich diet to keep urine calcium levels low. Food that are high in sodium are processed food, canned soups, canned vegetables, lunch meat, etc.

  • Limit the consumption of animal protein such as beef, poultry, fish or pork.

  • Try herbal remedies that prevent the formation of calcium-oxalate stones.

  • Restrict taking vitamin C supplements to lower the risk of kidney stones development.

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