We all know, the human body contains two kinds of intestine divided as per the size and process involved:-
What is Small Intestine
The small intestine is regarded as a long tube in the digestive system that absorbs 90% of the nutrients from the food we eat. The small intestine is a region of the alimentary canal that consists of the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum details of which are given below:-
Duodenum referred as the shortest channel and is first of the 3 sections of small intestine. It starts from the stomach base by the pyloric sphincter and wraps around the head of the pancreas in a C-shape.
The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine represents the proximal two-fifths. It is the middle section of the small intestine which serves as the primary site of nutrient absorption. It extends from the duodenojejunal flexure to the ileum, though there is no distinct external demarcation between the two.
The ileum is the third and final section of small intestine that empties into large intestine via the ileocecal sphincter. It extends from the jejunum to the ileocecal junction, and together with the jejunum is 6 to 7 meters long
Stages or conditions requiring intestine surgery
Small bowel obstruction
Small bowel infection
Bowel Obstruction: It is termed as the blockage of the small & large intestine although it is different from the fecal impaction. The diagnosis methodology involves:-
Complete blood count (CBC)
Acute Bowel Obstruction:
Acute bowel obstructions always occur suddenly. Treatment may include the following in case of subacute bowel obstruction:
Fluid replacement therapy.
Electrolyte Correction to induce necessary supplements of sodium, potassium, chloride in blood with the help of infusion.
Blood Transfusion in which infusion of whole blood or part blood is given to the person.
Nasogastric or Colorectal Tube in which nasogastric tube is inserted through the nose and esophagus into the stomach & colorectal tube is
inserted through the rectum into the colon. It is done to reduce the swelling, remove fluid and gas buildup, and relieve pressure.
Mechanical obstruction: Surgery is the required to relieve the mechanical obstruction and open up intestines.
Crohn's disease is serious problems affecting the digestive system of the human body by creating chronic inflammation and irritation. This disease affects your small intestine and beginning of the large intestine along with the other body parts like mouth, anus etc. Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). If not taken care on time, it may become worse over the period of time. there is not any prescribed age group for the same. anyone can have the problem of Crohn’s Disease affecting their eating habits. people having the age of 20-29 are more likely to get affected by the same.
Complications of Crohn’s disease?
Complications of Crohn’s disease are as given below:
Intestinal Obstruction: This will thicken the wall of the intestine and it will get blocked by narrowing down due to thickness. A partial or complete intestinal obstruction is also called a bowel blockage, as it can block the movement of food or stool through your intestines.
Fistulas: It may lead to creating a cut in the anal part creating tunnels or fistulas. This can be raised due to inflammation which may expand to the wall of the intestine.
Abscesses which are painful, swollen, and pus-filled pockets of infection.
Anal fissures: causing tears in the anus that may cause itching, pain, or bleeding.
Ulcers: may raise due to inflammation in your mouth, intestines, anus or perineum.
Malnutrition: As the name says, it is the deficiency of right amount of nutrition, vitamins, minerals which needs to maintain the healthy organs and tissues.
The inflammation can affect the other areas of the human body like joints, eyes, and skin. Crohn’s disease can be cured through proper medication and treatments. If inflammation goes more, it may also lead to Colon cancer. Consult the doctor on time and get better treatment.
Symptoms of Crohn's Disease
Following are the most common Symptoms of Crohn's disease:-
Cramping and pain in your abdomen
Eye redness or pain
Joint pain or soreness
Nausea or loss of appetite
Skin changes that involve red, tender bumps under the skin
Causes of Crohn's Disease
According to experts & researchers, following factors are responsible to cause Crohn's disease.
Autoimmune reaction (contradiction of immune system with healthy cells)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen antibiotics, and birth-control pills
A high-fat & low fiber diet
Diagnosis of Crohn's Disease
The following diagnostic tests are performed:-
Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) series
Computed Tomography (CT) scan
Upper GI Endoscopy and Enteroscopy
These tests are also rule out other diseases like ulcerative colitis, diverticular disease, or cancer, that cause symptoms similar to those of Crohn’s disease.
Treatments for Crohn's Disease
Various medical treatments can be offered to treat the problem. The various treatments are given as under:-
Medications: It will not cure the crohns disease completely although it may help to reduce the chances of symptoms of the same. The medicines involved Aminosalicylates, Corticosteroids, Immunomodulators, Biologic therapies. The different medicine has different roles. The doctor may prescribe the medicines according to the stage of the patients.
Bowel Rest: Patients may ask not to eat the heavy food so as to rest the bowel system. Doctors may prefer to insert a feeding tube into the stomach or may give intravenous (IV) nutrition by a special tube through the vein in your arm. only rich fiber foods will be given to the patients filled with nutrients.
2. BOWEL REST: If you are facing severe Crohn's disease symptoms, then you may be asked to rest your bowel system by not eating or drinking anything. Bowel rest involves taking several nutrients rich fluids only prescribed the doctors. Doctors may prefer to insert a feeding tube into the stomach or may give intravenous (IV) nutrition by a special tube through the vein in your arm. You may stay at the hospital or take the treatments at home. In most of the Crohn’s cases, Bowel rest heals the intestines.
3. SURGERY: the process involves the surgery related to fistula, continues bleeding, intestinal obstructions, side-effects raised by the medications. it will also help to deal the conditions which are not improved through the medicine.
The following surgical methods and measures will be taken to cure the Crohn’s disease:-
Surgical Treatment for Crohn’s Disease:-
The following surgeries are performed to cure the disease:-
Subtotal Colectomy: which is also called large bowel resection and done to cure the intestinal obstruction, fistula, or severe Crohn’s disease in your large intestine.
Proctocolectomy:- It is done to remove entire colon and rectum
Ileostomy: a stoma or an opening in the abdomen is created and an artificial removable external collection pouch, called an ostomy pouch/ ostomy appliance is connected with the stoma. Stoma will collect the tool, not the anus. patients going through the proctocolectomy will have to carry a stoma for the rest of the life.
Small Bowel Resection: it is done to recover the intestinal obstruction or severe Crohn’s disease in your small intestine. The two types of small bowel resection are:
Laparoscopic surgery is preferred as compared to open surgery due to its minimal pain and less risk involved.
Eating & Diet habits during Crohn's Disease:
To treat the Crohn's disease, one should change the lifestyle in a positive direction. The changes may include having healthy diets and healthy juice. One is required to avoid the spicy foods, popcorns, vegetable skins, nuts, and high fiber foods. small amount of food will be asked to intake at frequent intervals. The doctor will advise making a food diary with the proper diet plan so that food habits can be improved. The diet will depend on the causes, symptoms, and complications involved. The suggestion or advice includes taking high calorie, lactose-free, low-fat, low fiber, low salt diets.
People suffering from the Crohn’s disease are advised to consult the expert surgeon to diagnose and to treat the patients at the best.
The large intestine is part of the GI tract.
What is Ulcerative Colitis?
The disease is related to large Intestine only. Ulcerative Colitis (inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a chronic, long-lasting & life-threatening disease causing inflammation, irritation or swelling, and sores called ulcers on the inner lining of the large intestine. It may happen to anyone varying different age groups. The severity will also differ person to person. In case of Ulcerative Colitis, one should consult the gastroenterologist or the one who specializes in digestive diseases at the earliest before it gets worse.
Causes of Ulcerative Colitis?
Exact causes are still unknown but some common causes are given below:-
Stress or emotional imbalance
Abnormal immune systems or overactive intestinal system
High-fat diets and certain foods causing a negative impact on the body
Not a single age group is taken be affected by the same. People of Any age group can be affected by the Ulcerative colitis.
Signs & Symptoms of Ulcerative colitis
Diarrhea with blood or pus
Abdominal pain, discomfort
Abdominal burning sensation
Diagnosis of Ulcerative colitis
At primary level, a Physical examination is done by the physician by tapping the abdomen. Medical history can be studied to evaluate better. The other diagnostics methods include:-
Endoscopies of the Large Intestine
Treatments for Ulcerative Colitis:-
Medications:- Before taking any surgical procedure, doctors may prescribe some drugs or medicine at the initial level to cure the gastric symptoms and mild pain in the abdomen. These medicines are Aminosalicylates, Corticosteroids, Immunomodulators, Biologics etc. The medicine will be offered Depending upon the actual symptoms. Only an expert will be able to produce you the right combination of medication.
Surgical Treatments:- If stage get worsen and the pain becomes severe, it is the time to take the surgical treatment thereof:-
PROCTOCOLECTOMY AND ILEOSTOMY:- The combination of both the surgeries includes removing the entire colon and rectum. A stoma is attached in the abdominal opening and the stools are passed into stoma. The whole procedure is done to rest the bowel system. People having Proctocolectomy will have to go through the ileostomy and stoma will be attached to the human body for rest of the life.
PROCTOCOLECTOMY AND ILEOANAL RESERVOIR:- An Ileoanal Reservoir is an internal pouch made from the patient's ileum. It is a common alternative to an ileostomy and does not have a permanent stoma. The ileoanal reservoir is called a J-pouch, a pelvic pouch, or an ileoanal pouch anastomosis. The ileoanal Reservoir connects the ileum to the anus. The surgeon preserves the outer muscles of the patient's rectum during the proctocolectomy. Next, the surgeon creates the ileal pouch and attaches it to the end of the rectum. Waste is stored in the pouch and passes through the anus.
EFFECTS OF surgery:-
Bowel movements may be watery and more frequent
People may have fecal incontinence- an accidental passing of stools or mucus from the rectum.
Women may get infertile after the surgery
Pouchitis may get developed which causes irritation and inflammation of the lining of the ileoanal reservoir. Medications and antibiotics are given to treat pouchitis
If pouchitis become chronic, a surgeon may recommend longterm medication and operation based on the symptoms, severity of disease, age, lifestyle etc.
Note:- Full recovery from both operations may take 4 to 6 weeks.
At Pristyn care Laser Clinic, excessive care is given to the patients suffering from the Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative colitis. Both the problems are associated with the abdomen only. Consult the laparoscopic Surgeon and get the effective treatment through advanced modern techniques.
Doctor for Ulcerative Colitis/ Crohn'S Disease Treatment Clinic Gurgaon (South Delhi)
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