Obesity

Obesity is the health condition which is usually ignored by the people. A person who is overweight or carrying extra fat is assumed to have obesity. In technical term, Obesity is the condition in which fatty tissue stores are excessive. Obesity may lead to serious chronic illnesses such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, hypertension, sleep apnea, degenerative joint disease leading to increased risk of premature death. So one should never neglect the excess weight issues.


Central Obesity

Central obesity is also called “Apple-shaped” or “masculine” obesity and occurs when fat deposits around the abdomen. It is associated with higher morbidity than peripheral obesity leading to cardiovascular disease and may develop metabolic syndrome & diabetes. Central Obesity results in increased blood sugars, cholesterol increased insulin secretion, hypertension & atherosclerosis.

Obesity and Body Mass Index Calculations:-

The body mass index (BMI) is a scientific method to measure & define weight, overweight, obesity etc for both male and females. The current consensus definitions have established the following values for BMI:

  • A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal weight
  • A BMI of 25.0-29.9 is considered overweight
  • A BMI of 30.0-39.9 is considered obese
  • A BMI of 40.0 or higher is considered severely (or morbidly) obese
  • A BMI of 35.0 or higher in the presence of at least one other significant illness (diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, hypertension, sleep apnea, or degenerative joint disease) is also classified as morbid obesity.

BMI Calculator is one of the perfect methods to determine the weight loss. If your BMI is 25 and more, you really need to look after the effective measures to lose weight.


Causes of Obesity:-

Common causes of obesity are:-

  • Genetics or family factors
  • Psychological or mental disorders
  • Lifestyle issues

Health Risks from Obesity

Obesity is associated with the serious health risks. These may include:-

  • Heart Disease includes heart attack, congestive heart failure due to the blockage of coronary arteries. It affects the blood circulation and oxygen the heart.
  • Hypertension or High Blood Pressure
  • Stroke or Blood cloth in the brain due to the blocked flow of blood & oxygen. Increasing BMI along with the obesity also increases the chances of stroke.
  • Type 2 Diabetes if insulin is not working properly. It may also lead to stroke, kidney disease, blindness etc. Diabetic patients are more likely to suffer from overweight.
  • Metabolic Syndrome - Abnormal blood fat levels (low HDL Cholesterol), high blood pressure, higher blood sugar levels.
  • Cancer-related colon, breast, endometrial, gallbladder may also occur.
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux or Heartburn- a precancerous change in the lining of the esophagus and causing esophageal cancer.
  • Sleep Apnea while having the fat around the neck. it may create breathing problem while sleeping which is a life taking risk.
  • Abnormal Blood Fats -includes high amounts of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol directly associated with the heart disease.
  • Reproductive Problems causing menstrual irregularity or infertility in women
  • Gallstones are found in Obese people due to the high level of cholesterol
  • Osteoarthritis resembles pain in the joints of the knee, hips, lower back due to overweight.

Treatment of Obesity:-

People are always advised to change the diet plans and lifestyle to reduce the weights. Although the dietary approach is not applicable to all the people who are morbidly obese. Here two possible treatments are found which includes:-

  • Non- Surgical treatments include Diet modification, medications, social support programs etc. These are for short term and the effect is comparatively less.
  • Bariatric surgery helps to reduce weight and prevent type 2 diabetes by restricting food intake. When Dietary procedures fail to reduce the excess weight, surgery is the final option.

One should never neglect the obesity and its consequences.To maintain the overall health, one should visit the doctor and take preventive measures to control the severe obesity.

Various surgical options for weight loss


GASTRIC BYPASS

Gastric Bypass is a surgical procedure , In this method, a small pouch is created at the top of the stomach which will help to receive the amount in limited quantity. One will be able to consume the amount which he or she can comfortably eat. In Gastric Bypass, Small Intestine is cut with a short distance below the main stomach and is connected to the small pouch. The main stomach will still connect with the small intestine so that small intestine could receive digestive juices from the main stomach. Small pouch will directly send the food to the distal part of small intestine. Food now bypasses a portion of small intestine, fewer nutrients & calories are absorbed.


Benefits or Effects of Gastric Bypass:-

It carries some advantages and some effects as well. Here they are:-

  • This will help to lose approx. 70% of excess weight within 18 months of the surgery
  • You will absorb fewer calories from food via the bypassed intestine
  • It will help to improve type 2 diabetes
  • High blood pressure and high cholesterol medication will be brought under control
  • It will help to adjust hormones, increasing testosterone and improving metabolism
  • It is one of the powerful techniques as per the research. 90% of the patients may lose 50% of their weights with the help of gastric bypass.

SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY

Like gastric Bypass, It is also one of the weight loss procedures which limits the food intake by removing the part of the stomach. Like metabolic surgeries, Sleeve Gastrectomy promotes weight loss process by changing hormonal signals. It is again an innovative procedure to reduce the excess weight effectively by managing the digestive system.


How Does Sleeve Gastrectomy Work

Sleeve Gastrectomy helps to reduce the excess weight. In this process, Only a small sleeve-shaped pouch stomach is left and rest of the stomach is removed out of the complete stomach. This banana sized stomach will hold 1 ½ to 5 ounces .Patients will take limited food and low calories diet which can be absorbed by the body with great ease and thus improve the diet system. The Sleeve Gastrectomy will surely help the patients in weight loss, improvement in metabolic syndrome and overall better health. Of course, it may also help to regain the overall confidence.


Benefits of Sleeve Gastrectomy:-

Common benefits that a patient may face are:-

  • It is less time-consuming surgery as compared to Gastric Bypass.
  • Hunger-inducing hormone is reduced with the removal of big part of the stomach which will eventually help to reduce the hunger in the patients.
  • Does not re-route intestines
  • No dumping syndrome
  • No adjustments are needed
  • No foreign objects are left in the body
  • Weight loss may occur over 18 months of operation
  • The majority of weight loss occurs over 1 year.

Recovery of Sleeve Gastrectomy

The recovery period is a different from person to person. some may experience relief after the surgery and some may feel slight pain which can be relieved through medications. patients have to stay in the hospital for 1 to 2 days . Post surgery general instructions.

  • Do not drink too fast. Drink plenty of water but consume in small sip only. Do not try to intake at once. Keep your body hydrated as much as possible.
  • Some bowel movements and constipation related problems may rise post operation initially .
  • Do not be habituated of taking pain medicine. Consume the tablet as and when required.
  • Slowly get back to physical activity. Do not rush and do not run, start with the slow walks only and gradually increase the number of exercises. one may feel fatigue and tiredness in the first month of operation. Patients are also advised not to lift the heavy weight as it may put pressure on the stomach and wound may get worse.
  • Take shower, do not use bathtubs at least for a month after the surgery
  • One may get back to normal activities after 1-2 days

Complications of Sleeve Gastrectomy

Sleeve Gastrectomy is not as painful as it seems so. It may take time to get relax but surely it will lose the extra weight and improve the lifestyle. some care is required only. patients may have to bear discomfort due to new diets, mood swings, weakness. But after this, one will live the normal life. If any complications raised, he or she is advised to consult the doctor immediately. Some of the common problems include which may be serious:-

  • Staple Line Leaks:- One of the fearful and serious problems. To avoid this, Doctor should make sure to oversew the staple line so as to reduce or remove the risk of leakage where ever necessary.
  • A patient may experience Fever, Increased heart rate and difficulty in breathing so he should immediately consult with the doctor in case of breathing problem. To treat this problem, Time since surgery also matter. Under 3 days, Exploratory laparoscopy is done to check the leaks. Surgical repair is performed to cure the leaks. a feeding tube is placed directly into small intestines (jejunum). After 8 days or more, Surgery is typically not performed for the stable patients due to inflammation process. Drainage, stents & feeding route is often the route.
  • Blood Clots or Thrombosis is the life-threatening complications faced by the patients and not treated quickly. Blood clot raised due to lack of blood flow or mobility. Symptoms of Blood Clots are redness, swelling, pain, loss of sensation, paralysis, pale color may be seen in the arms and legs. if signs are found, Doctors and physician take preventive measure to stop blood clotting through medication or other therapy.
  • Stricture: When opening to or from the stomach is blocked preventing the food to enter into intestines, it is called stricture and may be serious as it may weaken our body.
  • Wound Site Infection which occur at or under the area of the incision. It may get worse due to obesity. infection can be treated with the help of anti-biotic. if not treated on time, it may lead to spreading of infection .

Long-term Complications:- These complications can occur anytime after the surgery and is not life-threatening & pleasant. It includes:-

  • Nutritional Deficiencies
  • Gallstones
  • Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD or heartburn)

GASTRIC BANDS

Gastric band Procedure is also called Lap band which is an effective technique for weight loss surgery. This is FDA approved in 2001 in the US to treat morbid obesity. It is was commonly used in India to reduce obesity or excess weight.


How Lap Gastric Band Works

A Lab band is placed around the stomach directly below the esophagus. The small port is inserted into the skin and tube is attached to the band. Doctor make sure to tighten the band after the surgery. The band is filled with saline that compresses the band around the stomach area. Food then sits in this area giving the patients a feeling of the full stomach. Food makes it process through the normal digestion system.

The lap band is typically adjusted a few weeks after the surgery.


Complications from Gastric bands:

  • Constipation: which can be managed with the help of proper diet and medications.
  • Difficulty Swallowing: One must change the eating habits by not grabbing the food so quickly and one must take equal bites while eating.
  • Nausea & Vomiting: which can be controlled by drinking plenty of water, fluids, eating small portions and following expert guidelines.
  • Bowel or Stomach Perforations: This happens during the surgery and may be corrected by the surgeon by opening the band and increasing the size of the incision in order to close in a proper way. It can prove to be deadly if bowel or stomach is not treated well.
  • Food Trapping: Foods may get stuck in the pouch which may give the feeling of throat cutting or something got stuck in the throat. It happens with 2 % of cases. It may also result in bad breath and vomiting. Food trapping can be corrected by deflating the band.
  • Band Erosion: It occurs in 2-9% of patients. This happens when Band rubs the stomach wall or esophagus by eroding the wall of stomach or band. In that case, bands may stop working and food flow may stop. This case may lead to making a new surgery to remove the band.
  • Slippage: When the band slips down and the pouch of the stomach will get enlarged. It will lead to high food intake, weight gain, and vomiting. It also required re-operation to tighten the band or to remove it.
  • Leak: If you are feeling a higher intake of food by the time, it may be due to the loosening of plastic of the band or leak. To diagnose the leak, Surgeon will inject a dye into your band area and X-ray will be performed to watch if the fluid is leaking. In case of leakage in Band, you will have to go for re-operation.
  • Intolerance: People may feel disturbed and discomfort while having a foreign object inside the body. They may have the feeling of vomiting. This general discomfort will be treated by removing the gastric band only.

The above complications are responsible for not choosing the Gastric bands over Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy.


MINI GASTRIC BYPASS:-

Again the weight loss surgery similar to Gastric Bypass with some small changes. The mini Gastric bypass is preferred over the gastric bypass due to:-

  • its huge popularity
  • It is quicker, technically easier
  • Carry Lower Risk & Complications

The procedure of Mini Gastric Bypass:-

In this Process, the stomach will be divided with a laparoscopic stapler. The new stomach will be created in a tube shape. The real stomach will no longer attach to the esophagus and will no longer receive foods. New Stomach will receive the food which will be having the shape of the small tube. Around 2-7 feet of intestines are bypassed and remaining intestine will be attached to the new stomach by the surgeon. Food will be delivered to new stomach with the normal digestive system in your remaining intestine.If we talk about the procedure, it seems difficult but the whole procedure is performed within an hour by the expert surgeon.


Benefits of Mini Gastric Bypass Compared to Gastric Bypass Surgery

Both are the effective methods of weight loss surgery, but some benefits of mini gastric bypass are;-

  • Less operating and surgery time
  • Performed laparoscopically
  • Less re-routing of intestines
  • Technically easier for the surgeon
  • Overnight Hospital stay
  • Easily reversible or revisable
  • Excellent weight loss technique
  • The low Complication rate in anastomosis
  • Return to normal activity within a week

Last but not the least, Dietary changes is the effective way to cure the obesity. prevention is better than cure. so adapt a healthy lifestyle. At Prsityn care Laser Clinic, the Laparoscopic surgeon will provide the right guidance and right diet plan to reduce the weight and the serious disease attached thereof. Consult today only.

Obesity Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery/ Sleeve Gastrectomy/ Gastroscopy/ Colonoscopy in Gurgaon South Delhi

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