causes of anal fissure

An anal fissure is a tear or crack, in the anus and anal canal. It can be acute or chronic and causes a lot of pain.

The initial symptoms include pain during and after bowel movements with bleeding, itching and smelly discharge.

Usually, anal fissure is less than one centimeter across, but the pain due to fissures may be quite severe as the anus is a very sensitive part of the body. Even a small tear can cause pain and discomfort.

Causes of Anal fissure can be:

  • Constipation and straining – Constipation and straining during bowel movements and passing hard stools can be the cause of anal fissures.
  • Persistent diarrhea – Repetitive diarrhea also can be a cause of an anal fissure. 
  • Pregnancy and childbirth – Pregnant women have a higher risk of getting an anal fissure in their later pregnancy and during childbirth.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases/infections – Syphilis, HIV, HPV, and herpes are the kind of diseases that have an association with a higher risk of having anal fissures.
  • Anal sex – Very rare but it can cause anal fissures.
  • Underlying conditions – Some underlying conditions, like Crohn’s disease and other inflammatory bowel diseases, may cause anal fissures.
  • Muscle spasms – There are two muscular rings also known as sphincters control the anus. The outer ring is consciously in control but the inner ring is not and is under constant pressure. It is said that, when the pressure increases to a large extent, the inner sphincter might spasm, decreasing the blood flow and increasing the risk of fissures.

When do you need to see a doctor?

Most people have an acute anal fissure and increasing the fiber diet can help you treat your problem within a few days. On the other side, if home remedies for fissure or medication fail to treat symptoms then consulting a doctor is beneficial. 

Treatment options

Home remedies to treat anal fissure

  • increase fiber intake to your diet
  • drink enough fluid
  • avoid straining during bowel movements

Non-surgical treatments

  • Sitz Bath for 10-15 minutes
  • Over-the-counter ointments for fissure
  • Botox injection to paralyze the anal muscle and relax spasm

Surgical treatment

Laser surgery for anal fissure is the best treatment. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia to turn a deep wound into a flat wound without making cuts and wounds. It removes all obstacles that can interfere with the discharge of secretions and the passage of stools. The benefits of laser surgery are: 

  • It is a minimally invasive procedure – no cut, no stitches and minimum blood loss
  • Daycare procedure: patient can go home the same day after the surgery
  • Short process: takes 30-40 minutes
  • Quick recovery
  • Negligible post-surgery complications
  • Quick return to normal routine

To get rid of anal fissure, all you have to do post-surgery is follow the instruction given by the healthcare provider. You will see the relts within a week. 

Conclusion

The best way to minimize the risk of anal fissure is to make lifestyle changes. If that doesn’t help then do not delay your treatment and consult the best proctologist for anal fissure treatment. 

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