A hernia is caused when an organ pushes through an opening in connective tissue called fascia. There are three types of hernia that are most common in men; inguinal or inner groin hernia, hiatal or upper stomach hernia and incisional hernia.
There can be a variety of reasons for the occurrence of hernia in an individual. Some of the most common causes are; ceaseless constipation, persistent sneezing or coughing and lifting heavy weights in an inappropriate manner.
Three most common Hernias in men are detailed below:
These are abdominal hernias that occur in the inguinal canal, which is a tubular structure where a man’s testicles have to descend before birth. This may result in internal inguinal ring which is a natural defect in men, and this can lead to an inguinal hernia if not sealed properly. This may cause a protrusion of tissue or organ in the abdominal region. This is a painful condition which is most common in men and consists two third of all adult hernias.
These hernia occurs in the lower abdomen, near the pubic area. If in case, these hernias occur on both sides of the pubia area it is called bilateral inguinal hernias. This may result in pain in the upper thigh.
Inguinal hernia may be direct or indirect. Direct inguinal hernia occurs through a weak point in the fascia of the abdominal wall whereas indirect inguinal hernia is a consequence of a naturally occurring weakness in the internal inguinal ring.
There are several approach to treat Inguinal hernias; Laparoscopic, tension-free and tension-repair. The recurrence rate of the former two techniques is comparatively low.
Hiatal comes from the word hiatus which is an opening in the diaphragm(a muscle that separates the abdominal cavity from chest). And, Hiatal hernia occurs when the upper stomach is pushed through the hiatus. This may lead to acid reflux causing pain, heartburn and erosion of esophagus.
A Hiatal hernia can be treated with a laparoscopic fundoplication surgery. In this surgery, a patient can resume daily activities in a week.
This type of hernia occurs as a result of incompletely-healed surgical wound in the abdominal region. These may occur years, months or weeks after the surgery and can vary in size and complexity. One should immediately see a doctor in case of incisional hernia as it may get complicated over time.
Laparoscopic tension-free and tension free have lower recurrence rate compared to tension-repair technique, which have 50% recurrence rate.